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مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : مصطلحات ادبية لتعين طلاب اللغة الانكليزية في تحليل الروارات والشعر والقصة القصيرة...و



بنفشى الشام
01-20-2010, 03:29 PM
أفيدكم بشرح لبعض المصطلحات التي نستخدمها لتحليل النصوص الادبية والروايات والنصوص الشعرية وأنا واثقة من فائدتها لكل مختص باللغة الانكليزية وهي مرتبة حسب ترتيب الاحرف


Acts- Divisions of plays or operas. On the contemporary stage, the three-act play is most common.

Adage- a proverb or wise saying made familiar by long use

Adaptation- 1) The rewriting of a work written in a different genre or medium than it was originally written. For example, turning a novel into a play would be an ADAPTATION 2) the translation of a work from one language to another

Address- a speech or written statement, serious in intent and somewhat formal in style. Frequently, for example, the political head of a nation gives an address to the country’s citizens.

Allegory- Prose or verse in which the objects, events or people are presented symbolically, so that the story conveys a meaning other than and deeper than the actual incident or characters described. Often, the form is used to teach a moral lesson.

Alliteration- The repetition of the initial letter or sound in two or more closely associated words or stressed syllables. Alliteration is not restricted to poetry.

Allusion- A figure of speech making casual reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event.

Ambiguity- The expression of an idea in such a way that more than one meaning is possible

Anachronism- The utilization of an event, a person, an object, language in a time when that event, person, or object was not in existence.

Analogy- An extended comparison showing the similarities between two things.

Anagram- A word or phrase made by transposing the letters of another word or phrase.

Example: cask in an anagram of sack

Argument- A form of discourse in which reason is used to influence or change people’s ideas or actions

Aside- Words spoken by a character in a play, usually in an undertone, not intended to be heard by other characters on stage.

Assonance- The repetition of similar vowel sounds, usually close together, in a group of words.

Autobiography- A person’s account of his or her own life.




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Ballad- A story told in verse and usually meant to be sung. The earliest ballads, known as folk ballads or popular ballads, were composed anonymously and transmitted orally for generations.

Biography- An account of a person’s life written by another person.

Blank Verse- Verse written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, where each line usually contains ten syllables and every other syllable is stressed.




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Catastrophe- The tragic denouement, or unknotting of a play or story.

Characterization- The personality a character displays; also, the means by which an author reveals that personality

Characters- Persons-or animals, things, or natural forces presented as person- appearing in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem.

Climax- That point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in a narrative.

Comedy- In general, a literary work that is amusing and ends happily.

Complication- A series of difficulties forming the central action in a narrative.

Conflict- A struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem. Conflict can be internal or external, and it can take one of these forms:

Connotation- The emotion or association that a word or phrase may arouse. Connotation is distinct from denotation, which is the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.

Conventions- Unrealistic devices or procedures that the reader (or audience) agrees to accept.

Couplet- Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme

Crisis or Turning Point- A point of great tension in a narrative that determines how the action will come out.




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Denotation- The literal or "dictionary" meaning of a word

Description- Any careful detailing of a person, place, thing, or event. Description is one of the for major forms of discourse. Descriptions re-create sensory impressions: sights, sounds, smells, textures, tastes.

Dialect- A representation of the speech patterns of a particular region or social group. Dialect, naturally, changes from location to location

Diction- A writer’s choice of words, particularly for clarity, effectiveness, and precision. A writer’s diction can be formal or informal, abstract or concrete. In attempting to choose the "right word", writers must think of their subject and their audience. Words that are appropriate in informal dialogue would not always be appropriate in a formal essay.

Drama- A story acted out, usually on a stage, by actors and actresses who take the parts of specific characters. Dramas are usually divided into two types, those being tragedies (serious play in which the central characters meet an unhappy or disastrous end) and comedies (humorous plays that end happily). The stories are told through dialogue and stage directions, which tell the actors how they should move and react to certain happenings.

Dramatic Irony- A device whereby the audience (or reader) understands more of a situation or of what is being said than the character is aware of. Such speech or action has great significance to the audience or reader and little significance to the character speaking or performing the action.

Dramatic Poetry- Poetry in which one or more characters speak

Dynamic Character- A character who undergoes an important and basic change in personality or outlook.




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Epic- A long narrative poem that relates the deeds of a hero. Epics incorporate myth, legend, folk tale, and history, and usually reflect the values of the society from which they originate.

Epithet- A descriptive adjective or phrase used to characterize someone or something.

Essay- A piece of prose writing, usually short, that deals with a subject in a limited way and expresses a particular point of view.

Exposition- The kind of writing that is intending primarily to present information




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Fable- A brief story or poem that is told to present a moral, or practical lesson. The characters in fables are often animals who speak or act like human beings.

Falling Action- All of the action in a play that follows the turning point. The falling action leads to the resolution or conclusion of the play.

Farce- A type of comedy based on a farfetched humorous situation, often with ridiculous or stereotyped characters.

Fiction- Anything that is invented or imagined, especially a prose narrative. Although fiction may be based on actual events or personal experiences, its characters and settings are invented. Even if a story is set in an actual place and involves recognizable characters or details, we understand the story itself to be fictitious.

Figurative Language- Language that is not intended to be interpreted in a literal sense. Figurative language always makes use of a comparison between different things. By appealing to the imagination, figurative language provides new ways of looking at the world.

Figure of Speech- A term applied to a specific kind of figurative language, such as a metaphor or simile. Everyday language abounds with many different figures of speech, in which we say one thing and mean another.

Flashback- A scene in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem that interrupts the action to show an event that happened at an earlier time.

Foil- A character who sets off another character by contrast. For example, having an angry character talking to a happy one.

Folk Ballad- A story told in verse that is by an unknown author and meant to be sung.

Folk Tale- An account, legend, or story that is passed along orally from generation to generation. Folk talks are of unknown authorship.

Foreshadowing- The use of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest what action is to come. Foreshadowing helps to build suspense in a story because it suggests what is about to happen.

Framework Story- A narrative that contains another narrative. Both the framework story and the inner story add meaning to one another, and one is usually important to the outcome of the other. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales is a famous example of several stories within a story.

Free Verse- Poetry that has no fixed meter or pattern and that depends on natural speech rhythms. Free verse may rhyme or not rhyme; its lines may be of different lengths; and like natural speech, it may switch suddenly from one rhythm to another.




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Heroic Couplet- Two consecutive lines of rhyming poetry that are written in iambic pentameter and that contain a complete thought. In a heroic couplet, there is usually one pause at the end of the first line, and another heavier pause at the end of the second line.

Homeric Simile- An extended comparison that mounts in excitement and usually ends in a climax. The Homeric simile is also known as the epic simile.




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Iambic Pentameter- The most common verse line in English poetry. It consists of five verse feet, with each foot an iamb-that is, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Shakespeare’s plays are written almost exclusively in iambic pentameter.

Imagery- Language that appeals to any sense or any combination of the senses.

Inversion- A reversal of the usual order or words to receive some sort of emphasis.

Irony- A contrast or an incongruity between what is stated and what is really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen. Two kinds of irony are: 1) verbal irony, in which a writer or speaker says one thing and means something entirely different; and 2) dramatic irony in which a reader or audience member perceives something that a character in the story does not




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Literal Language- A fact or idea stated directly. When a writer intends something to be understood exactly as it is written, he or she is using literal language.

Literary Ballad- A story told in verse in which a known writer imitates a folk ballad.

Lyric Poetry- Poetry that expresses a speaker’s personal thoughts or feelings. The elegy, ode, and sonnet are forms of the lyric.




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Metaphor- A comparison between two unlike things with the intent of giving added meaning to one of them. Metaphor is one of the most important forms of figurative language. Unlike a simile, a metaphor does not use a connective word such as like, as, than, or resembles to state a comparison.

Meter- A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry.

Monologue- A long, uninterrupted speech (in a narrative or drama) that is spoken in the presence of other characters. Unlike a soliloquy and most aides, a monologue is heard by other characters.




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Narration- The kind of writing or speaking that tells a story.

Narrative Poetry- Poetry that tells a story. One kind of narrative poem is the epic, a long poem which sets form the heroic ideals of a particular society.

Narrator- One who narrates or tells, a story. A writer may choose to have a story told by a first person narrator, someone who is either a major or minor character. Or, a writer may choose to use a third person narrator, someone who is not in the story at all. Third person narrators are often omniscient, or "all knowing"- that is, they are able to enter into the minds of all the characters in the story.

Nonfiction- Any prose narrative that tells about things as they actually happened or that posses factual information about something. Autobiography and biography are the most common forms.

Novel- A fictional narrative in prose, generally longer than a short story. The author is not restricted by historical facts but rather is free to create fictional personalities in a fictional world.




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Octave- The first eight lines of a Petrarchan (or Italian) sonnet.

Onomatopoeia- The use of a word whose sound in some degree imitates or suggests its meaning. The names of some birds are onomatopoetic, imitating the cry of the bird named. For instance, cuckoo, whippoorwill, owl, crow.




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Parallelism- The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or in meaning.

Paraphrase- A summary or recapitulation of a piece of literature. A paraphrase does not enhance a literary work. It merely tells in the simplest form what happened.

Personification- A figure of speech in which an animal, an object, a natural force, or an idea is given personality, or described as if it were human.

Persuasion- The type of speaking or writing that is intended to make its audience adopt a certain opinion or pursue an action or do both.

Petrarchan Sonnet- A fourteen-line lyric poem consisting of two parts: the octave (or first eight lines) and the sestet (or last six lines). The Petrarchan, or Italian sonnet, originated in Italy in thirteenth century and was much used by the Italian poet Francesco Petraarch. Its rhyme scheme is abbaabba cdecde.

Plot- The sequence of events or happenings in a literary work. Plots may be simple or complex, loosely constructed or close-knit. But every plot is made up a series of incidents that are related to one another.

Poetry- Traditional poetry is language arranged in lines, with a regular rhythm and often a definite rhyme scheme. Nontraditional poetry does away with regular rhythm and rhyme, although is usually is set up in lines. The richness of its suggestions, the sounds of its words, and the strong feelings evoked by its line are often said to be what distinguish poetry from other forms of literature. Poetry is difficult to define, but most people know when they read it.

Point of View- The vantage point from which a narrative is told.

Pun- Usually, the humorous use of a word or phrase to suggest two or more meanings at the same time.




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Quatrain- Usually a stanza or poem of four lines. However, a quatrain may also be any group of four lines. Unified by a rhyme scheme. Quatrains usually follow an abab, abba, or abcb rhyme scheme.




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Refrain- A word, phrase, line, or group of lines repeated regularly in a poem, usually at the end of each stanza.

Repetition- The return of a word, phrase, stanza form, or effect in any form of literature. Repetition is an effective literary device that may bring comfort, suggest order, or add special meaning to a piece of literature.

Resolution- The outcome of the conflict in a play or story. The resolution concludes the falling action.

Rhyme- The repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that usually appear close to each other in a poem. For example: river/shiver, song/long, leap/deep. If the rhyme occurs at the ends of lines, it is called end rhyme.

Rhyme Scheme- The pattern of rhymes in a poem. The rhyme scheme is indicated by a different letter of the alphabet for each new rhyme of the stanza.

Rhythm- The arrangement of stressed an unstressed syllables into a pattern. Rhythm is most apparent in poetry, though it is part of all good writing.

Rising Action- Those events in a play that lead to a turning point in the action.




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Satire- A kind of writing that holds up to ridicule or contempt the weaknesses and wrongdoing of individuals, groups, institution, or humanity in general.

Sestet- The last six lines of a Petrarchan (or Italian) sonnet. The sestet, from the Latin word for six, usually has a rhyme scheme of cdecde. A thought or idea that is introduced in the first eight lines, octave, of the poem is sometimes further developed in the sestet.

Setting- The time and place of action in a narrative. In short stories, novels, poetry, and nonfiction, setting is generally created by description. In drama, setting is usually established by stage directions and dialogue. Setting can be of great importance in establishing not only physical background but also mood or emotional intensity. In turn, the mood contributes to the plot and theme of the narrative.

Shakespearean Sonnet- A fourteen-line lyric poem consisting of three quatrains (four line stanza) and a concluding couplet (two rhyming lines). The Shakespearean, or English, sonnet was NOT invented by William Shakespeare, but is named for him because he is its most famous practitioner. Its rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg.

Short Story- Narrative prose fiction that is shorter than a novel. Short stories vary in length. Some are no longer than five hundred words; other run to forty or fifty thousand words. An extended short story is sometimes referred to as a novelette, or when slightly longer, as a novella. The major difference between a short story and longer fictional forms, such as the novel, is that the main literary elements-plot, setting, characterization- are used with greater compression in the short story than in the longer forms.

Simile- A comparison made between two dissimilar things through the use of a specific word of comparison such as Like, as, than, or resembles. The comparison must be between two essentially unlike things.

Soliloquy- A speech, usually lengthy, in which a character, alone on stage, expresses his or her thoughts aloud. The soliloquy is a very useful dramatic device, as it allows the dramatist to convey a character’s most intimate thoughts and feelings directly to the audience.

Sonnet- A fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter (in lines of ten syllables with a stress on every other syllable). Sonnets vary in structure and rhyme scheme, but are generally of two types: the Petrarchan, or Italian, sonnet and the Shakespearean, or English sonnet. Sonnets usually attempt to express a singles theme or idea.

Speaker- The voice in a poem. The speaker may be the poet or a character created by the poet. The speaker may also be a thing or an animal.

Stanza- A group of lines forming a unit in a poem. Many stanzas have a fixed pattern-that is, the same number of lines and the same rhyme scheme." A stanza may be as short as the couplet, two rhyming lines. A favorite form of many English poets has been the heroic couplet, two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter. The triplet is a stanza of three lines often with one rhyme. The quatrain is a four line stanza with many patterns of rhyme and rhythm. In ballads, the second and fourth lines are usually rhymed while the first and third lines are unrhymed.

Static Character- A character who remains the same throughout a narrative. Static characters do not develop or change beyond the way in which they are first presented.

Subplot- Secondary action that is interwoven with the main action in a play or story. Several subplots are not uncommon in a novel. The effect of one or more subplots maybe to provide some comic relief from a more serious main plot, or to create a certain atmosphere or mood, such as suspense or intrigue.

Suspense- That quality of a literary work that makes the reader or audience uncertain or tense about the outcome of events. Suspense makes the reader ask "What will happen next?". Suspense is greatest when it focuses attention on a sympathetic character. Thus, the most familiar kind of suspense involves a character hanging form the lee of a tall building, or tied to a railroad tracks as a train approaches.

Syllabus- An outline or abstract containing the major points included in a book, a course of lectures, an argument or a program of study.

Symbol- Any object, person, place, or action that has a meaning in itself and that also stands for something larger than it does, such as a quality, an attitude, a belief, or a value. For instance, a rose is often a symbol love and beauty while a skull is often a symbol of death.

Synecdoche- A form of the metaphor in which the part mentioned signifies the whole. A good synecdoche is based on an important part of the whole, the part most directly associated with the subject under discussion.

Syntax- The arrangement of words to form phrases, clauses and sentences; sentence construction. Syntax is also both the patterns of the aforementioned arrangements and the function of a word, phrase, or clause within a sentence.

Synthesis- The combination of two or more elements into a unified whole. Synthesis is the opposite of analysis, which involves detailed consideration of the separate elements or parts of a work. Synthesis is also the outcome of the dialectic process: thesis and antithesis combine to produce a synthesis.




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Tale- A simple narrative. A tale is a more general term than a short story, since the latter is applied to a narrative that follows a fairly technical pattern, and the former denotes any short narrative.

Terza Rima- A three-line stanza form borrowed from the Italian poets. The rhyme scheme is: aba, bcb, cdc, ded, etc.

Tetrameter- A line of verse containing four feet

Tetrapody- A group of words or a line of verse containing four feet

Theme- The main idea or the basic meaning of a literary work. The theme of a work is not the same as the works’ subject. Not all literary works can be said to express a theme. Theme generally is not a concern in those works that are told primarily for entertainment; it is of importance in those literary works that comment on or present some insight about the meaning of life. In some literary works the theme is expressed directly, but more often, the theme is implicit-that is, it must be dug out and thought about. A simple theme can often be stated in a single sentence. But sometimes a literary work is rich and complex, and a paragraph or even an essay is needed to state the theme.

Thesis- An attitude or position on a problem taken by a writer or speaker with the purpose of proving or supporting it.

Tome- A volume forming part of a larger work

Tone- The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, and readers. Through tone, a writer can amuse, anger, or shock the reader. Tone is created through the choice of words and details.

Tragedy- In general, a literary work in which the central character meets an unhappy or disastrous end. Unlike comedy, which often portrays a central character of weak nature, tragedy often involves the problems of a central character of dignified or heroic stature. Through a related series of events, this main character, the tragic hero or heroine, is brought to a final downfall. The causes of the character’s downfall vary. In traditional dramas, the cause is often an error in judgement or a combination of inexplicable outside forces that overwhelm the character. In modern dramas, the causes range from moral or psychological weaknesses to the evils of society. The tragic hero or heroine, though defeated, usually gains a measure of wisdom and/or self-awareness. There may be more than one central character in a tragedy.

Transition- In a piece of writing, the passing from one subject or division of a composition to another. A good prose style accomplishes transition between sentences; paragraphs and chapters by proceeding smoothly and logically from one point to the next, so that the relationships appear clear and natural.

Triad- A group of three. More specifically, the strophe, antistrophe, and epode of the Pindaric ode.

Trilogy- A literary composition, usually a novel or a play, written in three parts, each of which is a complete unit in itself.

Trimeter- A line of verse consisting of three feet.

Tristich- A stanza of three lines.

Trochee- A metrical foot consisting of an accented and an unaccented syllable, as in the word "happy". The trochee is often used as the meter for the supernatural.




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Understatement- A form of irony in which something is intentionally represented as less than it is in fact.

Utopia- A place in which social, legal, and political justice and perfect harmony exist.




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Vernacular- The domestic or native language of the people of a particular country or geographical area.

Verse- A line of poetry. "Verse" is a general term for metrical composition.

Verse Drama or Verse Play- A play written mostly or entirely in verse. Verse plays are often written in blank verse (unrhymed iambic pentameter).

Vice- An evil habit or wicked tendency present in characters in a literary work or poem.




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Whimsical- A critical term for writing what is fanciful or expresses odd notions.




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Xanaduism- Research to discover the sources that have contributed to a work of art.

Xenophanic- A term used to describe a wandering poet who writes witty, satirical verse. Xenophanes was a Greek poet who lived in the sixth century B.C., traveled widely throughout the Greek world and wrote verse satirizing Homer’s mythology.




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Yarn- A tale or story. Yarns are usually improbable and most likely exaggerated.




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Zeitgeist- The characteristic thought, preoccupation or spirit of a particular period.

منى عجاجي
01-23-2010, 02:09 AM
Actually Terms and explanations







Thanks Bnfcy alSham

Greetings